By: Amb. Ezebuilo, Paul Chibuike, Hon. Dr. Monique Lynch & Aziagba, Shekinah Oluchukwu. Introduction 

Nowadays, inhabitants of societies in the global and local context are most times very conscious of  their environment i.e. some, though are aware of how neat or how filthy their environment may be,  make do with what the environment has to offer. What emanates from the environment proclaims  itself through the effect it has on the inhabitants. The effect, on the other hand, steers out how well  the inhabitants will relate towards each other in the environment which includes the inhabitants  themselves. A sustainable and pleasant environment is most likely to make the inhabitants very  comfortable and peaceful while an unhealthy environment may make the inhabitants uneasy,  uncomfortable and aggressive, which in turn could translate to conflict within the community. 

An environment is supposed to determines the well-being of all forms of life (biotic) like humans,  animals, forests, plants and marine life. This is necessary in order to allow and see all systems work  together, therefore allowing all citizens to adapt and enjoy a good and cordial human relationship  thereby possessing the ability to survive in the immediate environment, which in turn favours the  individual existence. A broad vision of the health and well-being of individuals depends on the  sustainability of safety and quality of the environment available to them towards achieving peaceful  coexistence in the society. Thus, a sustainable environment is not just one that also encourages  physical activity and social contact. Without these required attributes, the environment may turn out  to be the opposite of what it should be, that is, it may not ensure for the inhabitants the ideals and  pleasures which are required of it thereby paving ways for uneasy and terrifying situations which  definitely will result to conflict in the society. 

Peace is also a precondition for sustainable development, as it enables people to cooperate, share  resources, and protect the environment. The United Nations has recognized that “there can be no  sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development” (UN  General Assembly Resolution 70/1). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include Goal 16:  Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions, which aims to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for  sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and  inclusive institutions at all levels” (UNDP, 2023). Positive and negative peace is related and  reinforces one other. Positive peace cannot exist without negative peace because fear and violence  obstruct opportunities for personal and social advancement. Negative peace cannot exist in the  absence of positive peace since conflict and violence can be stoked by unmet needs for justice,  equality, and wellbeing. 

Nevertheless, not only is peace a desirable state of affairs, but it is also a moral obligation and a  human right. Peace is promoted as a fundamental ideal and a heavenly commandment in a wide  variety of faiths and ethical systems. For example, Christianity teaches that “Blessed are the  peacemakers, for they will be called children of God” (Matthew, 5:9). Islam teaches that “The  servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant  address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace” (Quran 25:63). Buddhism teaches that “Hatred  does not cease by hatred, but only by love; this is the eternal rule” (Dhammapada 5). 

Moreso, environment and peace are inseparable phenomena both in the global and local setting  (Nigeria). Over the years, environmental issues have taken centre stage in the world. Sometimes, it  leads to peace while at other times it contributes to conflict outbreak. However, scholars on environmental studies have always studied environment and conflict in isolation of peace thereby  neglecting how environmental factors contribute to peace building in the society.

However, environmental conflicts are pervasive worldwide and arise due to competing interests and  the depletion or degradation of natural resources. The debate on the relationship between  environment and peace is a complex one. Thus, the argument still remain that most conflicts that  always occurred in the global societies occurred as a result of environmental negligence i.e.  environmental negligence contributes to conflict outbreak and retards peaceful coexistence in the  society therefore; the quest towards achieving environmental sustainability in the world is an means  of ensuring a peaceful coexistence in the society which becomes a threat to conflict. Therefore, the  question that is usually foremost in mind is whether there is a link/connection between the  environment and peace? In the light of the above, this paper examines the linkage/connection between environment and peace i.e. how a sustainable environment can assist in bringing about  peaceful coexistence among people living in the community/society. 

Conceptual Clarifications 

The Concept of Environment 

The natural world, ecosystems, and the complex interaction between humans are all included in the  broad idea of the environment. The surroundings and circumstances in which a person, animal, or  plant exist, lives or functions are referred to as the environment. It consists of both living (biotic)  and non-living (abiotic) components that have an impact on how live things function. Due to natural  and human influences, the environment is dynamic and constantly changing. The environment  affects how living things grow, change, adapt, and survive. Individuals, communities, and  governments are becoming more and more motivated to act as awareness of environmental  concerns rises.  

The term ‘’environment’’ has been modified from the traditional definition of a mere physical and  infrastructure to include all the components that could contribute in the holistic upkeep of the 

individual (Khalid, 2009). These include physical and natural environments, built environments and  social environments both at home, school and the community. The environment is basically, an  aggregate of the physical and biological entities which support the existence of man in all  ramifications (Adegoroye, 1997 cited in Nwanne, 2013). This encompassing importance of the  environment is further underscored by the fact that it provides all life support systems with air,  water and land as well as the materials for fulfilling all development aspirations of man (Lawanson,  2006).  

The environment refers to both the physical and social circumstances which surround people and  have influence on them. It is both objective and subjective. This is because it includes water bodies  and the life there in, land mass, forests, grasslands, deserts, animals and man himself and all the  interactions that take place (Gana & Toba, 2015). It also refers to: all the natural endowment and  those provided by man in his efforts to make life meaningful and comfortable. This means  everything that affects man in anyway- land, water, air, trees, grasses and houses (Nwanne, 2013). 

Comprehensively, in relation to sustainability, the environment represents a wealth of resources  which must be protected. This recognition as an aspect of current development agenda can be traced  to the 1987 Bruntland Commission of the United Nations which ascribed sustainability to  development and defined it as development that meets the needs of the present without  compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therfeore, environment  sustainability refers to the conservation, management and rational utilization of natural resources in  such a way to maintain the integrity of each ecosystem, support all life, ensure the preservation of  biodiversity and prevent environmental degradation. 

The Concept of Peace 

Peace can be conceptualized as having social functions of integration and order. In the  philosophical view point, peace is seen as natural, original, God-given state of human existence. In  this way, peace is the pre-corruption state of man in society that remains as God established it. In  fact, peace from this philosophical standpoint is a state of perfection, an earthly expression of God’s  kingdom that is yet uncorrupted. As a sociological concept, peace refers to a condition of harmony  in which there is no social antagonism. In other words, peace is a condition in which there is no  social conflict and individuals and groups are able to meet their needs and expectations. While  politically, peace is a condition that makes justice possible. It entails political order that is, the  institutionalization of political structures. In this sense, institutionalization means that political  structures acquire values and stability.  

Peace as a concept is primarily concerned with the creation and the maintenance of a just order in  the society (Howard, 1987). According to John Galtung, a Norwegian peace theorist in (1990 & 1996), he classified peace as “negative”and “positive”. By “negative” peace, it means that the peace  in existence includes only the absence of direct violence, war, fear and conflict at individual,  national, regional and international levels. On the other hand, when peace is said to be “positive”, it  means that the peace in existence relates to the above discussion which includes the absence of  unjust structures, unequal relations, justice and inner peace at individual level. This is however,  conceived to be a complete or the real peace since it includes the absence of war (direct violence)  and absence of unjust structures (indirect violence).  

For Ibeanu (2007), peace can be viewed from the instrumentalist-functionalist, philosophical,  sociological and political interpretations. From the instrumentalist interpretation, peace is a means  to an end. In this sense, the absence of war serves the end of social progress and development. Peace is said to be a concept of societal harmony and camaraderie in the absence of animosity and 

violence. In a social context, peace is frequently understood as the absence of conflict (such as war)  and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or groups (Wikipedia, 2023). Peace can also  describe a relationship between any people characterized by respect, justice and goodwill. Peace  can describe calmness, serenity, and silence. 

However, peace is not only the absence of something negative, but also the presence of something  positive. This is the idea behind the distinction between negative peace and positive peace.  Negative peace is understood as ‘the absence of violence or fear of violence – an intuitive definition  that many agree with, and one which enables us to measure peace more easily (Vision of Humanity,  2023). Positive peace is defined as the attitudes, institutions and structures that create and sustain  peaceful societies. It provides a framework to understand and then address the multiple and  complex challenges the world faces (Vision of Humanity, 2023). 

Peaceful coexistence is a term from peace which is a state of harmony characterised by a lack of  violent conflict, commonly understood as the absence of hostility. Peace suggests the existence of  healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social  or economic welfare, the establishment of equality and a working political order that serves the true  interest of all. In international relations, peace is not the absence of war or conflict, but also the  presence of cultural and economic understanding (Dalung, 2013). Generally, a common consensus  among scholars is that peace is godly and in that it relates to tranquillity and openness to tolerate  wrong deed hence, Bakut (2007) opined that every society in Africa and other parts of the globe has  the concept of peace and also, promotes a culture of peace. 

Theoretical Underpinning 

This paper adopted Linkage theory as a theoretical framework of analyis in understanding the  relationship/connection between environment and peace. The Linkage theory was propunded by  Joseph Frankel in 1972. Linkage theory is an offshoot of systems theory i.e. the theory evolves  from Systems analysis. According to Joseph Frankel in his book titled “Contemporary  International theory and Behaviour of State”; he posits that what he refers to as the linkage  approach has its starting point from the systems analysis. Further still, for him, ‘Linkage’denotes  “any recurrent sequence of behaviour that originates in one system and is reacted to in  another“(Rosenau, 1969). 

The Linkage theory emphasizes on the way one negotiation influences or determines the process or  outcome of another. It effectively explains the relationship between one variable with another  particularly its relevant environment. Crump (2009) held that the outcome of a single negotiation  can have multiple explanations depending on the variable selected for analysis. Therefore, our  concern here is to critically look at the link between environmental negligence or activities can  result to conflict and how serene environment and lack of conflict promotes peace in our society.  

In this context, this theory establishes how environmental pollution and degradation arising from  the activities of the Multinational Companies such as oil spillage or gas flaring, poverty,  unemployment and government negligence on the one hand contributed to environmentalconflicts  and crisis around the globe most especially in Nigeria while on the other hand the environmental  conflict led to the pursuit of peace in the society. By this, linkage theory explores the whole range  of interconnection and relationship that exist between environment and peace as subject matter.

Environmental Conflict in Global and Local Context 

Environmental conflicts persist globally and within Nigeria, stemming from various factors such as  resource scarcity, unsustainable practices, and competing interests. These conflicts have wide ranging implications for ecosystems, communities, and international relations. Addressing  environmental conflicts requires a comprehensive approach that promotes sustainable development,  inclusive governance, and the equitable distribution of resources. Efforts should be directed towards  fostering dialogue, cooperation, and the implementation of effective policies and regulations. By  recognizing and addressing environmental conflicts, we can strive towards a more sustainable and  harmonious coexistence between humans and the environment. 

The environment is foundational to human well-being, providing vital resources and services.  Ecosystem services, such as air and water purification, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation, are  essential for human survival (Costanza et al., 2017). However, human activities have led to severe  environmental conflicts/issues such as climate change, deforestation, pollution, and loss of  biodiversity. These challenges have global ramifications, affection ecosystems, human health, and  socio-economic systems (Rockstrom et al., 2009).  

It is essential to recognize how serious these issues are and take quick action. It is essential to  promote a sustainable environment in order to address these urgent problems. This entails putting  procedures and policies into place that seek to satisfy current needs while preserving the welfare of  future generations. A key component of sustainability is striking a balance between environmental  protection and economic growth. To reduce carbon emissions and lessen ecological footprints,  governments and businesses must adopt green technologies, renewable energy sources, and  sustainable practices. 

Global Environmental Conflicts 

Environmental threats to peace and security have become increasingly alarming, with about 95% of  the world population experiencing environmental disasters arising from the mismanagement of the  ecosystem. Mindful of its implication, the international community became committed to its  solution thus; they called for ‘The Earth Summit’ or ‘Conference’ held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in  June 1992 with almost every country of the world in attendance. The conference was prompted by  two main factors: Was the belief that the world faced a common crisis-global warming, and the  belief that it is in the interest of everyone to join hands to combat that crisis in particular and other  forms of environmental decline in general. Thus, the global environmental conflicts include but not  limited to the followings: 

i. Global Warming: The rising temperature of the plant represents a common crisis to  humanity, hence a threat to security and peace. While it is natural for variations (change  between one season and anotherhot and cold temperatures), in the temperatures of plant to  exist, the range of variations is increasing. This implies that a long protracted hot weather  has the tendency to remain hotter all through the season with adverse effects on local  climates especially on the vegetation and animal life. This invariably constitutes a threat to  the survival of humanity as well as affecting agricultural production and other aquatic lives.  

There are many causes and consequences of global warming. They are caused as a result of  huge increase in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) through industrial and commercial  processes. Many scholars have brazenly identified the uses of oil, coal and wood extracted  by plants from the atmosphere as the main source of global warming. This is considered to  be injurious to human existence hence; Singh & Gupta (2006) stated that among most  obvious consequences of global warming is the change in altitudinal and latitudinal  distribution of organisms and their assemblages.

ii. Water Scarcity: In many regions across the globe, water scarcity is a major environmental  conflict. The competition for water resources between different sectors, such as agriculture,  industry, and domestic use, often leads to conflicts. For instance, the conflict between  Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia over the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam  on the Nile River exemplifies the tensions and geopolitical implications associated with  water scarcity. 

iii. Deforestation: Deforestation is a global environmental conflict with far-reaching  consequences. The exploitation of forests for timber, agriculture, and urbanization disrupts  ecosystems and threatens biodiversity. The conflict in the Amazon rainforest, where illegal  logging and land encroachments occur, highlights the clash between economic development  and environmental conservation. 

iv. Climate Change: Climate change is a pressing global environmental conflict resulting from  greenhouse gas emissions and unsustainable practices. The Paris Agreement serves as a  framework for addressing this conflict and promoting international cooperation. However,  disputes can arise over the implementation of climate policies and the burden of  responsibility. The conflict between developed and developing nations regarding emission  reduction targets exemplifies the challenges of achieving consensus on climate change  mitigation. 

Environmental Conflicts in Nigeria 

Environmental pollution has remained a common threat to the corporate existence of Nigeria.  Scholars and policy makers have reaffirmed that human activities arising from exploration of the  environment have formed sources of environmental pollution resulting to global warming. Its  impact could lead to conflict or agitation for environmental cleanse and compensation. In Nigeria, 

the constant engagement of the Multinational Companies in exploiting and exploring the  environment has resulted to the number of crises witnessed in the area of Niger Delta.  

Akiri (2008) maintains that as a result of the oil and gas operations of the multinationals, the land  and environment have been grievously degraded. Pollution from frequent oil spillages has a high  capacity for rapid spread along the coastline and within the creeks, with its attendant destruction of  the ecosystem and ground water contamination. These have led to the destruction of quiet a bit of  the flora and funa, thus depriving the people of their resources. In a relative development, Aghalino  (2008) further opined that for well over four decades that the oil majors have been prospecting for  oil in the Niger Delta, they have not only radically disrupted the ecological balance of the area, but  have also through negligence and cynical indifference orchestrated a various ecological war.  

Environmental pollution caused mainly by oil spillages and indiscriminate disposal of oil industry  waste and cuttings are common place in the region and a demand for a compensation has resulted to  collateral damage of oil pipe lines, wells and kidnapping of oil expatriates and the demand for  ransom. The result of this action further exacerbated the conflicts leading to the militarization of the  region with its consequent rise on militant group. Therefore, the environmental conflicts in Nigeria  include but not limited to the followings: 

i. Oil Spillage/Pollution: Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta region has experienced severe  environmental conflicts due to oil extraction activities. Oil spills, gas flaring, and the  destruction of local livelihoods have led to protests and conflicts between communities,  multinational corporations, and the government. The conflict between the Ogoni people and  Royal Dutch Shell is a notable example of the ongoing struggle for environmental justice in  the Niger Delta.

ii. Land Degradation and Desertification: Land degradation and desertification pose  significant environmental challenges in Nigeria, especially in the northern regions.  Unsustainable agricultural practices, deforestation, and climate change exacerbate these  conflicts, leading to competition for land and resources. The conflict between farmers and  herders over access to grazing lands and water resources in Nigeria’s Middle Belt region  illustrates the tensions arising from land degradation. 

iii. Urban Pollution: Rapid urbanization in Nigerian cities has resulted in environmental  conflicts related to pollution. Air pollution from vehicular emissions, industrial activities,  and inadequate waste management contribute to health risks and social tensions. The  conflict between residents of Lagos and the government over waste disposal exemplifies the  challenges of balancing urban development with environmental sustainability. 

The Nexus between the Environment and Peace 

The nexus that exist between environment and peace should be studied and examined through the  concept of Peace Ecology i.e. in studying the linkage between environment and peace which is built  on key concepts such as bio-regionalism, place, sustainability and interconnectedness of the two  spheres (peace & environment), which leads to a new definition of environmental peacemaking as  well as a new methodological approach. Thus, the concept of Peace Ecology, is built on the  combined vision of peace and environmental studies, it also gives a broader context in which we  can evaluate environmental peacemaking more precisely (Deyanova, 2009). It applies a globalview  approach to environmental peacemaking and emphasizes the long-term benefits of an  environmental consciousness. Inspired by the idea of environmental peacemaking, it provides space  for integration of the two fields of study, where the tolerance for epistemic, cultural, spiritual,  societal, as well as ecological diversity is largely reflected. 

However, these two concept has create a space for looking at the peacebuilding potential of  environmental practices and projects regardless of whether they are driven by problem solving or  by a worldview, whether they focus on some task or on human consciousness. There is an  inevitable and total interconnectedness of life through nature. Regardless of the specific  circumstances, humans take part in the same set of interconnected ecological cycles. The world is  changing over time. Conflict is in a way a natural byproduct of change, which could be both  destructive and constructive. It may provoke positive or negative change. Unfortunately, all forms  of violence have human as well as environmental costs. Without peace in the environment, a vision  of the transforming society we live in, capable of dealing with changes and its challenges  constructively and non-violently, humans may be able to claim a given environmental peacemaking  project has certain effect, but to comprehensively estimate the effects and to what results they lead,  cannot be completely determined (Deyanova, 2009). 

Moreover, environment and peace are directly interconnected and interdependent and there are  several types of violence (physical, structural, cultural, epistemic, psychological or ecological)  determining whether a society is leaning towards peace or conflict and violence. A society  subjecting its members to violence deprives itself of the prospect of maximizing its own societal,  economic and environmental potential. Environment and peace values the preservation and  harmonious and peaceful interaction of societies with nature. In terms of peace, each one of these  cultures carries its own system and techniques for dealing with conflict non-violently. The  principles of interconnectedness and interdependence, shared by both the peace and the ecological  approaches, extend human responsibility in terms of protecting the environment and maintaining  peace far into the future (Deyanova, 2009).  

Environment and peace are closely connected to the “do-no-harm” principle. In conflict resolution  studies, it implies sensitivity to human suffering, to the local culture and customs and the great 

responsibility accompanying peace intervention. In environmental practice, it suggests sensitivity to  the ecosystem’s tolerance against human intervention and the fragility in the balance of the  chemical, biological, and ecological cycles of life as well as the responsibility that comes along  with managing the environment.  

Environment and peace can and should be evaluated as interdependent concepts. It suggests a  sensitive and integrated concept, considering the type of society, ecosystem and conflicts such  projects are expected to influence. It does not presume effective environmental projects will  necessarily lead to peace nor vice versa. It does not assume cooperation in an environmental  peacemaking project would suggest a peaceful transformation of the society in which the project is  implemented. Both concepts should not be understood and treated as separate, but instead they  should function synergistically, enhancing and improving each other (Deyanova, 2009). Thus,  environment and peace are not only inter-related and in many ways, dependent on each other, but  crucial for the survival of mankind as well. Moreso, protection and sustainable management of the  environment should be a priority for all humans. It is important that humans are aware of this  interdependence and understand the urgent need for action towards achieving peaceful coexistence  in the society. 

Environmental Sustainability as a Pathway to Preventing Conflicts 

The critical linkages between the environment, pace and insecurity, former United Nations  Secretary General Kofi Annan called for integrating environmental contributions to conflict and  instability into the United Nation’s Conflict Prevention Strategy and the deliberations of his high  level panel on threats, challenges and change. Surprisingly, however, relatively little is known  about the best design for environmental peace-making initiatives or the conditions under which they  are most likely to succeed. Without better knowledge and a stronger commitment to study current 

efforts, the International Community may be missing powerful peacemaking opportunities in the  environmental domain. 

According to the United Nations Millennium Project, “environmental sustainability is the  foundation on which strategies for achieving all the other Millennium Development Goals must be  built”. There is a growing understanding that environmental degradation, unequal access and  distribution of natural resources could represent a potential reason for conflict. Environmental  sustainability forms one of the pillars of sustainability development, the others being social  sustainability and economic sustainability. It is an aspect of the development process which  emphasizes the harnessing of natural and social resources with major considerations for continuity  and the future (Gbenda, 2012). 

Conca (2003) emphasized that the environmental sustainability offers some useful, perhaps even  unique qualities that lead themselves to building peace and transforming conflict. Environmental  challenges ignore political boundaries, require a long term perspective, encourage local and non governmental participation, and extend community building beyond polarizing economic linkages.  Where cooperation does not take root, it may help to enhance trust, establish cooperative habits,  create share regional identities around shared resources, and establish mutually recognized rights  and expectations. The characteristics of environmental sustainability as pathway to preventing  conflicts, according to Khalid (2009) asserted that environmental sustainability provisions are as  follows; 

i. Physical development: Availability of basic health care such as prenatal and postnatal care  for mothers, nutrition for mother and child, immunization, safe shelter, clean water, good  sanitation and hygiene, as well as opportunities to develop gross and fine motor skills and  also protection from abuse. 

ii. Cognitive development: Availability of educational institutes and day care centres, trained  staff, safe and secured surroundings, child friendly environment, exposure to activities and  stories. This includes opportunities to interact with different people, understand and develop  exploration and encouragement for creativity and critical thinking.  

iii. Social development: Relationships contribute to the society and develop an understanding  about one’s own identity and the society and protection from abuse.  

iv. Moral development: Opportunities to create an awareness about rights and properties of  others, having stable relationships, love and affection, developing positive self-image,  developing a sense of security, belief system of family and society as well as what is wise  and what is not wise.  

Abdullatif (1999) stated that characteristics of environmental sustainability that tends to prevent  conflict are numerous and include the following: a clean and safe physical environment; the  attainment of everyone’s basic need in the environment; promotion of social harmony that actively  involves everyone; understanding of the local health and environment hazard issues; community  participation in identifying local problems and solutions; access to information and varied  experiences communication; appropriate and accessible health services; promotion and celebration  of historical and cultural heritage; exitence of diverse and innovative economy and equitable  distribution and sustainable use of available resources. 

In a nutshell, environmental sustainability is that surrounding which promotes the well-being and  proper development of an individual (Carpenter, 2005). Therefore, in order to ensure peace and  prevent conflict through envioronmental sustainability there should be the followings; Unpolluted  air, Clean water, Adequate food supply, Safe shelter, Good weather and Good human relationship  in and outside the home.

Summary / Conclusion 

There are significant and substantial links between environments and peace. There is no society that can hope to establish lasting peace unless it finds ways to make the environment a suataainable and healthy one. One of the mechanisms for realizing national integration, security and conflict  resolution can be found in an environment that has every potential for making life better for the  inhabitants. Effective peace can be achieved through improved and well-managed environment that  is able to deliver to the inhabitants what they deserve. The environment must be kept clean and  every necessity should be made available. Therefore, degrading of the environment should be halted  to make the environment better. It is only through radical change that environmental degradation  and its damaging effects on human health will be halted. 

In a nutshell, this paper on environment and peace has revealed that the two variables are closely  linked with one another i.e. the environmental challenges could lead to conflict in the society while  peace can be ensured when there is no threat to environment (i.e. environmental sustainability) with  an absent of conflict. However, environmental sustainability should be ensured via extreme  reduction in poverty and hunger as these among others should be helpful towards bringing about  peace in the society. 


In line with understanding the connecting dot between environmental sustainability and achieving  peace towards preventing conflicts/crisis in the global and local context, states should cooperate and  be organized in order to preserve and protect the environment as a common interest through  international law, based on the principle of sustainable and equitable use of natural resources, as  well as other principles of international law. Threats to environmental security can only be dealt

with by states’ cooperative management and multilateral procedures and mechanisms (Conca,  2003). Therefore, the following recommendations were made; 

i. Reduction/eradication of extreme poverty and hunger via job creation, skill acquisition and  empowernment programmes. Reducing exposures to environmental risk factors indirectly  contributes to reducing poverty because many environmentally mediated diseases cause lost  earnings. Recognize the environmental deprivations suffered by the people and reflect them  in poverty and conflict monitoring systems.  

ii. Promotion of gender equality and women empowernment. Although may be no great  differences between the overall rates of environmentally mediated disorders for men and for  women, women are disadvantaged in many aspects. In developing countries, women are  mostly involved in collecting safe water and other essentials for the family. 

iii. Clarifying of property and gaining access/rights to environmental resources and strive for  the equitable sharing of benefits thereby, enabling those who depend most on the  environment to gain access to justice and to participate in policy and institutions.  

iv. Integration of health criteria into decision making, where appropriate, across multiple  sectors. Conduct comprehensive community health needs assessments and develop state and  community health improvement plans.


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About the Authors 

Amb. Ezebuilo, Paul Chibuike is a Research Fellow with CEPASD. 

Hon. Dr. Monique Lynch is a Research Associate with CEPASD. 

Aziagba, Shekinah Oluchukwu is a Program Manager with CEPASD.