By: Amb. Ezebuilo, Paul Chibuike, Hon. Dr. Monique Lynch & Aziagba, Shekinah Oluchukwu. Introduction
Nowadays, inhabitants of societies in the global and local context are most times very conscious of their environment i.e. some, though are aware of how neat or how filthy their environment may be, make do with what the environment has to offer. What emanates from the environment proclaims itself through the effect it has on the inhabitants. The effect, on the other hand, steers out how well the inhabitants will relate towards each other in the environment which includes the inhabitants themselves. A sustainable and pleasant environment is most likely to make the inhabitants very comfortable and peaceful while an unhealthy environment may make the inhabitants uneasy, uncomfortable and aggressive, which in turn could translate to conflict within the community.
An environment is supposed to determines the well-being of all forms of life (biotic) like humans, animals, forests, plants and marine life. This is necessary in order to allow and see all systems work together, therefore allowing all citizens to adapt and enjoy a good and cordial human relationship thereby possessing the ability to survive in the immediate environment, which in turn favours the individual existence. A broad vision of the health and well-being of individuals depends on the sustainability of safety and quality of the environment available to them towards achieving peaceful coexistence in the society. Thus, a sustainable environment is not just one that also encourages physical activity and social contact. Without these required attributes, the environment may turn out to be the opposite of what it should be, that is, it may not ensure for the inhabitants the ideals and pleasures which are required of it thereby paving ways for uneasy and terrifying situations which definitely will result to conflict in the society.
Peace is also a precondition for sustainable development, as it enables people to cooperate, share resources, and protect the environment. The United Nations has recognized that “there can be no sustainable development without peace and no peace without sustainable development” (UN General Assembly Resolution 70/1). The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions, which aims to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels” (UNDP, 2023). Positive and negative peace is related and reinforces one other. Positive peace cannot exist without negative peace because fear and violence obstruct opportunities for personal and social advancement. Negative peace cannot exist in the absence of positive peace since conflict and violence can be stoked by unmet needs for justice, equality, and wellbeing.
Nevertheless, not only is peace a desirable state of affairs, but it is also a moral obligation and a human right. Peace is promoted as a fundamental ideal and a heavenly commandment in a wide variety of faiths and ethical systems. For example, Christianity teaches that “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called children of God” (Matthew, 5:9). Islam teaches that “The servants of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth easily, and when the ignorant address them [harshly], they say [words of] peace” (Quran 25:63). Buddhism teaches that “Hatred does not cease by hatred, but only by love; this is the eternal rule” (Dhammapada 5).
Moreso, environment and peace are inseparable phenomena both in the global and local setting (Nigeria). Over the years, environmental issues have taken centre stage in the world. Sometimes, it leads to peace while at other times it contributes to conflict outbreak. However, scholars on environmental studies have always studied environment and conflict in isolation of peace thereby neglecting how environmental factors contribute to peace building in the society.
However, environmental conflicts are pervasive worldwide and arise due to competing interests and the depletion or degradation of natural resources. The debate on the relationship between environment and peace is a complex one. Thus, the argument still remain that most conflicts that always occurred in the global societies occurred as a result of environmental negligence i.e. environmental negligence contributes to conflict outbreak and retards peaceful coexistence in the society therefore; the quest towards achieving environmental sustainability in the world is an means of ensuring a peaceful coexistence in the society which becomes a threat to conflict. Therefore, the question that is usually foremost in mind is whether there is a link/connection between the environment and peace? In the light of the above, this paper examines the linkage/connection between environment and peace i.e. how a sustainable environment can assist in bringing about peaceful coexistence among people living in the community/society.
∙ The Concept of Environment
The natural world, ecosystems, and the complex interaction between humans are all included in the broad idea of the environment. The surroundings and circumstances in which a person, animal, or plant exist, lives or functions are referred to as the environment. It consists of both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) components that have an impact on how live things function. Due to natural and human influences, the environment is dynamic and constantly changing. The environment affects how living things grow, change, adapt, and survive. Individuals, communities, and governments are becoming more and more motivated to act as awareness of environmental concerns rises.
The term ‘’environment’’ has been modified from the traditional definition of a mere physical and infrastructure to include all the components that could contribute in the holistic upkeep of the
individual (Khalid, 2009). These include physical and natural environments, built environments and social environments both at home, school and the community. The environment is basically, an aggregate of the physical and biological entities which support the existence of man in all ramifications (Adegoroye, 1997 cited in Nwanne, 2013). This encompassing importance of the environment is further underscored by the fact that it provides all life support systems with air, water and land as well as the materials for fulfilling all development aspirations of man (Lawanson, 2006).
The environment refers to both the physical and social circumstances which surround people and have influence on them. It is both objective and subjective. This is because it includes water bodies and the life there in, land mass, forests, grasslands, deserts, animals and man himself and all the interactions that take place (Gana & Toba, 2015). It also refers to: all the natural endowment and those provided by man in his efforts to make life meaningful and comfortable. This means everything that affects man in anyway- land, water, air, trees, grasses and houses (Nwanne, 2013).
Comprehensively, in relation to sustainability, the environment represents a wealth of resources which must be protected. This recognition as an aspect of current development agenda can be traced to the 1987 Bruntland Commission of the United Nations which ascribed sustainability to development and defined it as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therfeore, environment sustainability refers to the conservation, management and rational utilization of natural resources in such a way to maintain the integrity of each ecosystem, support all life, ensure the preservation of biodiversity and prevent environmental degradation.
∙ The Concept of Peace
Peace can be conceptualized as having social functions of integration and order. In the philosophical view point, peace is seen as natural, original, God-given state of human existence. In this way, peace is the pre-corruption state of man in society that remains as God established it. In fact, peace from this philosophical standpoint is a state of perfection, an earthly expression of God’s kingdom that is yet uncorrupted. As a sociological concept, peace refers to a condition of harmony in which there is no social antagonism. In other words, peace is a condition in which there is no social conflict and individuals and groups are able to meet their needs and expectations. While politically, peace is a condition that makes justice possible. It entails political order that is, the institutionalization of political structures. In this sense, institutionalization means that political structures acquire values and stability.
Peace as a concept is primarily concerned with the creation and the maintenance of a just order in the society (Howard, 1987). According to John Galtung, a Norwegian peace theorist in (1990 & 1996), he classified peace as “negative”and “positive”. By “negative” peace, it means that the peace in existence includes only the absence of direct violence, war, fear and conflict at individual, national, regional and international levels. On the other hand, when peace is said to be “positive”, it means that the peace in existence relates to the above discussion which includes the absence of unjust structures, unequal relations, justice and inner peace at individual level. This is however, conceived to be a complete or the real peace since it includes the absence of war (direct violence) and absence of unjust structures (indirect violence).
For Ibeanu (2007), peace can be viewed from the instrumentalist-functionalist, philosophical, sociological and political interpretations. From the instrumentalist interpretation, peace is a means to an end. In this sense, the absence of war serves the end of social progress and development. Peace is said to be a concept of societal harmony and camaraderie in the absence of animosity and
violence. In a social context, peace is frequently understood as the absence of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or groups (Wikipedia, 2023). Peace can also describe a relationship between any people characterized by respect, justice and goodwill. Peace can describe calmness, serenity, and silence.
However, peace is not only the absence of something negative, but also the presence of something positive. This is the idea behind the distinction between negative peace and positive peace. Negative peace is understood as ‘the absence of violence or fear of violence – an intuitive definition that many agree with, and one which enables us to measure peace more easily (Vision of Humanity, 2023). Positive peace is defined as the attitudes, institutions and structures that create and sustain peaceful societies. It provides a framework to understand and then address the multiple and complex challenges the world faces (Vision of Humanity, 2023).
Peaceful coexistence is a term from peace which is a state of harmony characterised by a lack of violent conflict, commonly understood as the absence of hostility. Peace suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality and a working political order that serves the true interest of all. In international relations, peace is not the absence of war or conflict, but also the presence of cultural and economic understanding (Dalung, 2013). Generally, a common consensus among scholars is that peace is godly and in that it relates to tranquillity and openness to tolerate wrong deed hence, Bakut (2007) opined that every society in Africa and other parts of the globe has the concept of peace and also, promotes a culture of peace.
This paper adopted Linkage theory as a theoretical framework of analyis in understanding the relationship/connection between environment and peace. The Linkage theory was propunded by Joseph Frankel in 1972. Linkage theory is an offshoot of systems theory i.e. the theory evolves from Systems analysis. According to Joseph Frankel in his book titled “Contemporary International theory and Behaviour of State”; he posits that what he refers to as the linkage approach has its starting point from the systems analysis. Further still, for him, ‘Linkage’denotes “any recurrent sequence of behaviour that originates in one system and is reacted to in another“(Rosenau, 1969).
The Linkage theory emphasizes on the way one negotiation influences or determines the process or outcome of another. It effectively explains the relationship between one variable with another particularly its relevant environment. Crump (2009) held that the outcome of a single negotiation can have multiple explanations depending on the variable selected for analysis. Therefore, our concern here is to critically look at the link between environmental negligence or activities can result to conflict and how serene environment and lack of conflict promotes peace in our society.
In this context, this theory establishes how environmental pollution and degradation arising from the activities of the Multinational Companies such as oil spillage or gas flaring, poverty, unemployment and government negligence on the one hand contributed to environmentalconflicts and crisis around the globe most especially in Nigeria while on the other hand the environmental conflict led to the pursuit of peace in the society. By this, linkage theory explores the whole range of interconnection and relationship that exist between environment and peace as subject matter.
Environmental Conflict in Global and Local Context
Environmental conflicts persist globally and within Nigeria, stemming from various factors such as resource scarcity, unsustainable practices, and competing interests. These conflicts have wide ranging implications for ecosystems, communities, and international relations. Addressing environmental conflicts requires a comprehensive approach that promotes sustainable development, inclusive governance, and the equitable distribution of resources. Efforts should be directed towards fostering dialogue, cooperation, and the implementation of effective policies and regulations. By recognizing and addressing environmental conflicts, we can strive towards a more sustainable and harmonious coexistence between humans and the environment.
The environment is foundational to human well-being, providing vital resources and services. Ecosystem services, such as air and water purification, nutrient cycling, and climate regulation, are essential for human survival (Costanza et al., 2017). However, human activities have led to severe environmental conflicts/issues such as climate change, deforestation, pollution, and loss of biodiversity. These challenges have global ramifications, affection ecosystems, human health, and socio-economic systems (Rockstrom et al., 2009).
It is essential to recognize how serious these issues are and take quick action. It is essential to promote a sustainable environment in order to address these urgent problems. This entails putting procedures and policies into place that seek to satisfy current needs while preserving the welfare of future generations. A key component of sustainability is striking a balance between environmental protection and economic growth. To reduce carbon emissions and lessen ecological footprints, governments and businesses must adopt green technologies, renewable energy sources, and sustainable practices.
∙ Global Environmental Conflicts
Environmental threats to peace and security have become increasingly alarming, with about 95% of the world population experiencing environmental disasters arising from the mismanagement of the ecosystem. Mindful of its implication, the international community became committed to its solution thus; they called for ‘The Earth Summit’ or ‘Conference’ held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992 with almost every country of the world in attendance. The conference was prompted by two main factors: Was the belief that the world faced a common crisis-global warming, and the belief that it is in the interest of everyone to join hands to combat that crisis in particular and other forms of environmental decline in general. Thus, the global environmental conflicts include but not limited to the followings:
i. Global Warming: The rising temperature of the plant represents a common crisis to humanity, hence a threat to security and peace. While it is natural for variations (change between one season and anotherhot and cold temperatures), in the temperatures of plant to exist, the range of variations is increasing. This implies that a long protracted hot weather has the tendency to remain hotter all through the season with adverse effects on local climates especially on the vegetation and animal life. This invariably constitutes a threat to the survival of humanity as well as affecting agricultural production and other aquatic lives.
There are many causes and consequences of global warming. They are caused as a result of huge increase in the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) through industrial and commercial processes. Many scholars have brazenly identified the uses of oil, coal and wood extracted by plants from the atmosphere as the main source of global warming. This is considered to be injurious to human existence hence; Singh & Gupta (2006) stated that among most obvious consequences of global warming is the change in altitudinal and latitudinal distribution of organisms and their assemblages.
ii. Water Scarcity: In many regions across the globe, water scarcity is a major environmental conflict. The competition for water resources between different sectors, such as agriculture, industry, and domestic use, often leads to conflicts. For instance, the conflict between Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia over the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam on the Nile River exemplifies the tensions and geopolitical implications associated with water scarcity.
iii. Deforestation: Deforestation is a global environmental conflict with far-reaching consequences. The exploitation of forests for timber, agriculture, and urbanization disrupts ecosystems and threatens biodiversity. The conflict in the Amazon rainforest, where illegal logging and land encroachments occur, highlights the clash between economic development and environmental conservation.
iv. Climate Change: Climate change is a pressing global environmental conflict resulting from greenhouse gas emissions and unsustainable practices. The Paris Agreement serves as a framework for addressing this conflict and promoting international cooperation. However, disputes can arise over the implementation of climate policies and the burden of responsibility. The conflict between developed and developing nations regarding emission reduction targets exemplifies the challenges of achieving consensus on climate change mitigation.
∙ Environmental Conflicts in Nigeria
Environmental pollution has remained a common threat to the corporate existence of Nigeria. Scholars and policy makers have reaffirmed that human activities arising from exploration of the environment have formed sources of environmental pollution resulting to global warming. Its impact could lead to conflict or agitation for environmental cleanse and compensation. In Nigeria,
the constant engagement of the Multinational Companies in exploiting and exploring the environment has resulted to the number of crises witnessed in the area of Niger Delta.
Akiri (2008) maintains that as a result of the oil and gas operations of the multinationals, the land and environment have been grievously degraded. Pollution from frequent oil spillages has a high capacity for rapid spread along the coastline and within the creeks, with its attendant destruction of the ecosystem and ground water contamination. These have led to the destruction of quiet a bit of the flora and funa, thus depriving the people of their resources. In a relative development, Aghalino (2008) further opined that for well over four decades that the oil majors have been prospecting for oil in the Niger Delta, they have not only radically disrupted the ecological balance of the area, but have also through negligence and cynical indifference orchestrated a various ecological war.
Environmental pollution caused mainly by oil spillages and indiscriminate disposal of oil industry waste and cuttings are common place in the region and a demand for a compensation has resulted to collateral damage of oil pipe lines, wells and kidnapping of oil expatriates and the demand for ransom. The result of this action further exacerbated the conflicts leading to the militarization of the region with its consequent rise on militant group. Therefore, the environmental conflicts in Nigeria include but not limited to the followings:
i. Oil Spillage/Pollution: Nigeria’s oil-rich Niger Delta region has experienced severe environmental conflicts due to oil extraction activities. Oil spills, gas flaring, and the destruction of local livelihoods have led to protests and conflicts between communities, multinational corporations, and the government. The conflict between the Ogoni people and Royal Dutch Shell is a notable example of the ongoing struggle for environmental justice in the Niger Delta.
ii. Land Degradation and Desertification: Land degradation and desertification pose significant environmental challenges in Nigeria, especially in the northern regions. Unsustainable agricultural practices, deforestation, and climate change exacerbate these conflicts, leading to competition for land and resources. The conflict between farmers and herders over access to grazing lands and water resources in Nigeria’s Middle Belt region illustrates the tensions arising from land degradation.
iii. Urban Pollution: Rapid urbanization in Nigerian cities has resulted in environmental conflicts related to pollution. Air pollution from vehicular emissions, industrial activities, and inadequate waste management contribute to health risks and social tensions. The conflict between residents of Lagos and the government over waste disposal exemplifies the challenges of balancing urban development with environmental sustainability.
The Nexus between the Environment and Peace
The nexus that exist between environment and peace should be studied and examined through the concept of Peace Ecology i.e. in studying the linkage between environment and peace which is built on key concepts such as bio-regionalism, place, sustainability and interconnectedness of the two spheres (peace & environment), which leads to a new definition of environmental peacemaking as well as a new methodological approach. Thus, the concept of Peace Ecology, is built on the combined vision of peace and environmental studies, it also gives a broader context in which we can evaluate environmental peacemaking more precisely (Deyanova, 2009). It applies a globalview approach to environmental peacemaking and emphasizes the long-term benefits of an environmental consciousness. Inspired by the idea of environmental peacemaking, it provides space for integration of the two fields of study, where the tolerance for epistemic, cultural, spiritual, societal, as well as ecological diversity is largely reflected.
However, these two concept has create a space for looking at the peacebuilding potential of environmental practices and projects regardless of whether they are driven by problem solving or by a worldview, whether they focus on some task or on human consciousness. There is an inevitable and total interconnectedness of life through nature. Regardless of the specific circumstances, humans take part in the same set of interconnected ecological cycles. The world is changing over time. Conflict is in a way a natural byproduct of change, which could be both destructive and constructive. It may provoke positive or negative change. Unfortunately, all forms of violence have human as well as environmental costs. Without peace in the environment, a vision of the transforming society we live in, capable of dealing with changes and its challenges constructively and non-violently, humans may be able to claim a given environmental peacemaking project has certain effect, but to comprehensively estimate the effects and to what results they lead, cannot be completely determined (Deyanova, 2009).
Moreover, environment and peace are directly interconnected and interdependent and there are several types of violence (physical, structural, cultural, epistemic, psychological or ecological) determining whether a society is leaning towards peace or conflict and violence. A society subjecting its members to violence deprives itself of the prospect of maximizing its own societal, economic and environmental potential. Environment and peace values the preservation and harmonious and peaceful interaction of societies with nature. In terms of peace, each one of these cultures carries its own system and techniques for dealing with conflict non-violently. The principles of interconnectedness and interdependence, shared by both the peace and the ecological approaches, extend human responsibility in terms of protecting the environment and maintaining peace far into the future (Deyanova, 2009).
Environment and peace are closely connected to the “do-no-harm” principle. In conflict resolution studies, it implies sensitivity to human suffering, to the local culture and customs and the great
responsibility accompanying peace intervention. In environmental practice, it suggests sensitivity to the ecosystem’s tolerance against human intervention and the fragility in the balance of the chemical, biological, and ecological cycles of life as well as the responsibility that comes along with managing the environment.
Environment and peace can and should be evaluated as interdependent concepts. It suggests a sensitive and integrated concept, considering the type of society, ecosystem and conflicts such projects are expected to influence. It does not presume effective environmental projects will necessarily lead to peace nor vice versa. It does not assume cooperation in an environmental peacemaking project would suggest a peaceful transformation of the society in which the project is implemented. Both concepts should not be understood and treated as separate, but instead they should function synergistically, enhancing and improving each other (Deyanova, 2009). Thus, environment and peace are not only inter-related and in many ways, dependent on each other, but crucial for the survival of mankind as well. Moreso, protection and sustainable management of the environment should be a priority for all humans. It is important that humans are aware of this interdependence and understand the urgent need for action towards achieving peaceful coexistence in the society.
Environmental Sustainability as a Pathway to Preventing Conflicts
The critical linkages between the environment, pace and insecurity, former United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan called for integrating environmental contributions to conflict and instability into the United Nation’s Conflict Prevention Strategy and the deliberations of his high level panel on threats, challenges and change. Surprisingly, however, relatively little is known about the best design for environmental peace-making initiatives or the conditions under which they are most likely to succeed. Without better knowledge and a stronger commitment to study current
efforts, the International Community may be missing powerful peacemaking opportunities in the environmental domain.
According to the United Nations Millennium Project, “environmental sustainability is the foundation on which strategies for achieving all the other Millennium Development Goals must be built”. There is a growing understanding that environmental degradation, unequal access and distribution of natural resources could represent a potential reason for conflict. Environmental sustainability forms one of the pillars of sustainability development, the others being social sustainability and economic sustainability. It is an aspect of the development process which emphasizes the harnessing of natural and social resources with major considerations for continuity and the future (Gbenda, 2012).
Conca (2003) emphasized that the environmental sustainability offers some useful, perhaps even unique qualities that lead themselves to building peace and transforming conflict. Environmental challenges ignore political boundaries, require a long term perspective, encourage local and non governmental participation, and extend community building beyond polarizing economic linkages. Where cooperation does not take root, it may help to enhance trust, establish cooperative habits, create share regional identities around shared resources, and establish mutually recognized rights and expectations. The characteristics of environmental sustainability as pathway to preventing conflicts, according to Khalid (2009) asserted that environmental sustainability provisions are as follows;
i. Physical development: Availability of basic health care such as prenatal and postnatal care for mothers, nutrition for mother and child, immunization, safe shelter, clean water, good sanitation and hygiene, as well as opportunities to develop gross and fine motor skills and also protection from abuse.
ii. Cognitive development: Availability of educational institutes and day care centres, trained staff, safe and secured surroundings, child friendly environment, exposure to activities and stories. This includes opportunities to interact with different people, understand and develop exploration and encouragement for creativity and critical thinking.
iii. Social development: Relationships contribute to the society and develop an understanding about one’s own identity and the society and protection from abuse.
iv. Moral development: Opportunities to create an awareness about rights and properties of others, having stable relationships, love and affection, developing positive self-image, developing a sense of security, belief system of family and society as well as what is wise and what is not wise.
Abdullatif (1999) stated that characteristics of environmental sustainability that tends to prevent conflict are numerous and include the following: a clean and safe physical environment; the attainment of everyone’s basic need in the environment; promotion of social harmony that actively involves everyone; understanding of the local health and environment hazard issues; community participation in identifying local problems and solutions; access to information and varied experiences communication; appropriate and accessible health services; promotion and celebration of historical and cultural heritage; exitence of diverse and innovative economy and equitable distribution and sustainable use of available resources.
In a nutshell, environmental sustainability is that surrounding which promotes the well-being and proper development of an individual (Carpenter, 2005). Therefore, in order to ensure peace and prevent conflict through envioronmental sustainability there should be the followings; Unpolluted air, Clean water, Adequate food supply, Safe shelter, Good weather and Good human relationship in and outside the home.
Summary / Conclusion
There are significant and substantial links between environments and peace. There is no society that can hope to establish lasting peace unless it finds ways to make the environment a suataainable and healthy one. One of the mechanisms for realizing national integration, security and conflict resolution can be found in an environment that has every potential for making life better for the inhabitants. Effective peace can be achieved through improved and well-managed environment that is able to deliver to the inhabitants what they deserve. The environment must be kept clean and every necessity should be made available. Therefore, degrading of the environment should be halted to make the environment better. It is only through radical change that environmental degradation and its damaging effects on human health will be halted.
In a nutshell, this paper on environment and peace has revealed that the two variables are closely linked with one another i.e. the environmental challenges could lead to conflict in the society while peace can be ensured when there is no threat to environment (i.e. environmental sustainability) with an absent of conflict. However, environmental sustainability should be ensured via extreme reduction in poverty and hunger as these among others should be helpful towards bringing about peace in the society.
In line with understanding the connecting dot between environmental sustainability and achieving peace towards preventing conflicts/crisis in the global and local context, states should cooperate and be organized in order to preserve and protect the environment as a common interest through international law, based on the principle of sustainable and equitable use of natural resources, as well as other principles of international law. Threats to environmental security can only be dealt
with by states’ cooperative management and multilateral procedures and mechanisms (Conca, 2003). Therefore, the following recommendations were made;
i. Reduction/eradication of extreme poverty and hunger via job creation, skill acquisition and empowernment programmes. Reducing exposures to environmental risk factors indirectly contributes to reducing poverty because many environmentally mediated diseases cause lost earnings. Recognize the environmental deprivations suffered by the people and reflect them in poverty and conflict monitoring systems.
ii. Promotion of gender equality and women empowernment. Although may be no great differences between the overall rates of environmentally mediated disorders for men and for women, women are disadvantaged in many aspects. In developing countries, women are mostly involved in collecting safe water and other essentials for the family.
iii. Clarifying of property and gaining access/rights to environmental resources and strive for the equitable sharing of benefits thereby, enabling those who depend most on the environment to gain access to justice and to participate in policy and institutions.
iv. Integration of health criteria into decision making, where appropriate, across multiple sectors. Conduct comprehensive community health needs assessments and develop state and community health improvement plans.
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About the Authors
∙ Amb. Ezebuilo, Paul Chibuike is a Research Fellow with CEPASD.
∙ Hon. Dr. Monique Lynch is a Research Associate with CEPASD.
∙ Aziagba, Shekinah Oluchukwu is a Program Manager with CEPASD.